Belbin team roles
Approach to profiling people on the basis of personality types, to identify their strengths and weaknesses as the members of a team. It divides people into three broad classes subdivided into nine individual roles. These are (A) Action Oriented Roles: (1) Shaper challenging, energetic, enjoys working under pressure, has the drive to overcome obstacles and to get things done, can be abrasive, impatient, provoking, and easily provoked; (2) Implementer efficient, disciplined, methodical, and reliable, turns ideas into plans, and plans into action, tends to lack flexibility, and vision to see new possibilities; and (3) Completer-Finisher conscientious, painstaking, worry-prone. ferrets out errors of commission and omission, maintains a degree of urgency and makes sure the team delivers on time, poor delegator. (B) People Oriented Roles: (4) Coordinator calm, confident, mature, natural chairperson. goal clarifier, good delegator, decisive, tends to control the way the team moves forward and thus seems manipulative, not an intellectual or innovator; (5) Team-Worker cooperative, diplomatic, sensitive, averts fragmentation, builds bridges, calms tempers, vacillates and shies away from tough decision; and (6) Resource Investigator communicative, enthusiastic, and loud, open to new ideas and finds new opportunities, good networker, has short interest-span and tends to be lazy unless under pressure. (C) Cerebral Roles: (7) Plant creative, imaginative, and knowledgeable, problem solver who focuses on the big picture and ignores peripheral issues, too busy to be an effective communicator; (8) Monitor-Evaluator cold, hardheaded, and prudent strategist, does not ignore any important detail and chooses correctly, too dull to be an inspirer; and (9) Specialist dedicated, narrowly focused, self-motivator, brings professionalism, uncommon knowledge, and rare skills to the team, fusses about minutiae and fails to see the big picture. UK's Dr. R. Meredith Belbin (proponent of this approach and author of the 1981 book 'Management Teams: Why They Succeed Or Fail') defines team roles as "Our tendency to behave, contribute, and interrelate with others in a particular way." See also fundamental interpersonal relations orientation (FIRO).